With today’s 2019.4 update, you can now share audio or video clips, up to a minute each, from any public podcast. Simply tap the share button in the upper-right corner.
This is an excellent feature. Though I'm currently on Android and using Pocket Casts (which is very good as well) I figured I'd link to this since he's built it in the most conscientious way I can think of.
If you're on iOS and haven't tried Overcast I recommend you do.