@smokey They did given them weight, just minimal. I read through the study this morning, and it’s not great. Many of the references are meta-analyses the group put together that are being published in the same journal this month. So, essentially, you can’t even interpret the data without reading other articles because there isn’t any actual data in the article. Sigh. As far as observational studies go, cohort studies ARE good studies. And they’re useful if they are big to determine small differences and minimizing all the other potential factors that could lead to changes. It certainly feels as though the authors had their own bias against previous nutritional recommendations and sought to use different methodologies to be controversial. And I say that as someone who loves red meat (though I prefer it to be grass-fed, which may have some nutritional benefits to grain-fed). And bacon. I’d be slightly more impressed if this work was a precursor to their own efforts to assess this question with a controlled study. But it’s not.